Published: 2017-11-23

Drug utilization pattern in out-patients with respiratory tract infections in a rural teaching hospital: a prospective observational study

Paramita Pal, Dipankar Bhattacharyya, Kokila B. N., Herle M., Anoljyoti Ghosh, Sukanta Sen


Background: Respiratory tract infections are common clinical problems in the general population. Antimicrobials are the mainstay in the management and irrational use of them may increase resistance to bacteria and the total cost of treatment. Objectives: To evaluate the pattern of drug prescriptions for respiratory tract infections in Medicine and Pediatric outpatient departments of a rural teaching hospital.

Methods: Over a period of 18 months, 391 prescriptions of outpatients with respiratory tract infection were collected. The drugs prescribed, their dose and duration of treatment were recorded. DU 90% was calculated.

Results: The mean (±SEM) age of the patients was38.55±0.9 years and there were 204 (52.1%) men and 187 (42.1%) women. The most common disorder among the patients was acute rhinitis (61.1%) while the least common was acute bronchitis (1.3%). Microbial culture and sensitivity was done in 23 patients and Klebsiella pneumonia (8.2%) and enterococcus (0.07%) was the most common and least common organism respectively. Penicillins (50.9%), cephalosporins (26.7%), antitubercular drugs (8.5%), macrolides (4.8) constituted DU 90%. Monotherapy was advocated in 91.7% and multidrug therapy in 8.3% of patients. The average number of antimicrobials prescribed per prescription was 0.52. Two thirds (67.6%) of the prescribed drugs were from the national list of essential medicines 2011 (NLEM).

Conclusions: Penicillins and cephalosporins were the commonly used antibiotics for respiratory tract infection in outpatients of a rural teaching hospital and two thirds of the prescribed drugs were essential medicines.


Antimicrobial agents, Drug utilization, Respiratory tract infections

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