Published: 2018-04-23

Assessment of oxidative stress in breast cancer patients: a hospital based study

Jagruti Bhattacharjee, Sangita Jogdand, R. K. Shinde, Sourav Goswami


Background: Oxidative stress occurs as a result of the disturbance in the balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and antioxidant defenses. This is regarded as a possible etilogical factor in production of breast carcinoma, which is the most cmmon cancer among the females both globally as well as in India. Oxidative stress also plays an important role in progression of cancer breast. This study was conducted to compare the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in breast cancer patients and normal age matched female participants.

Methods: This study was conducted in AVBR Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe) among 30 female breast cancer patients admitted in the surgery ward for treatment after being diagnosed with the disease, who attended the hospital from July 2016 to June 2017. Breast cancer patients of stage I and II were included in the study. Patients suffering from any other diseases apart from breast cancer like diabetes, hypertension, thyroid illnesses and other sort of cancers are excluded from the study. For each of the study participant, age and sex matched controls were selected who were mostly the relatives of patients attending the hospital and were devoid of any illnesses. Venous blood sample was collected from all the patients as well as the controls that were used for determination of the levels of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and MDA (malondialdehyde). Written informed consent was taken from all the study participants before drawing the blood samples.

Results: Authors have measured the markers of oxidative stress in breast cancer patients after diagnosis of breast cancer and compared theses blood levels with those of the controls. The mean MDA (nmol/ml) levels for the breast cancer patients and the controls were 26.14 and 15.83 respectively, while the SOD (U/gm Hb) levels were 0.12 and 0.16 respectively and the difference of the mean were statistically significant (p value <0.01).

Conclusions: There is presence of increased oxidative stress in breast cancer patients as compared to the healthy controls.


Breast cancer, Malondialdehyde, Oxidative stress, Superoxide dismutase

Full Text:



Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Inter J Cancer. 2015;136(5).

Peto J. Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade. Nature. 2001;411:390-5.

Rockenbach G, Di Pietro PF, Ambrosi C, Boaventura BC, Vieira FG, Crippa CG, et al. Dietary intake and oxidative stress in breast cancer: before and after treatments. Nutricion hospitalaria. 2011;26(4).

Amin KA, Mohamed BA, Mohamed A M, Ibrahem SO. Impact of Breast Cancer and Combination Chemotherapy on Oxidative Stress, Hepatic and Cardiac Markers. J Breast Cancer. 2012;15(3):306-12.

Singh G, Maulik SK, Jaiswal A, Kumar P, Parshad R. Effect on antioxidant levels in patients of breast carcinoma during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy. MJMS. 2010;17(2):24.

Singh S, Brocker C, Koppaka V, Chen Y, Jackson BC, Matsumoto A, Thompson DC, Vasiliou V. Aldehyde dehydrogenases in cellular responses to oxidative/electrophilic stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;56:89-101.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4(8):118-26.

Nimse S B, Pal D. Free radicals, natural antioxidants and their reaction mechanisms. RSC Adv. 2015;5:27986-28006.

Yoshikawa T, Naito Y. What is oxidative stress? JMAJ. 2002:45(7):271-76.

Weijl NI, Hopman,GD, Wipkink BE, Lentjes M, Berger HM, Cleton FJ, et al. Cisplatin combination chemotherapy induces a fall in plasma antioxidants of cancer patients. Annals Oncology. 1998;9:1331-37.

Kasapović J, Pejić S, Stojiljković V, Todorović A, Radošević-Jelić L, Saičić ZS, et al. Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in the blood of breast cancer patients of different ages after chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Clin Biochem. 2010;43(16-17):1287-93.

Prabasheela B, Singh AK, Fathima A, Pragullbh K, Deka NJ, Kumar R. Association between Antioxidant Enzymes and Breast Cancer. Recent Res Sci Technology. 2011;3(11):93-5.

Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem. 1974;47(3):469-74.

Trush MA, Kensler TW. An overview of the relationship between oxidative stress and chemical carcinogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med. 1991;10:201-9.

Rice-Evans C, Burdon R. Free radical-lipid interactions and their pathological consequences. Prog Lipid Res. 1993;32:71-110.

Wang M, Dhingra K, Hittelman WN, Liehr JG, De Andrade M, Li D. Lipid peroxidation-induced putative malondialdehyde-DNA adducts in human breast tissues. Cancer Epidemiology Prevention Biomarkers. 1996;5(9):705-10.

Boyd NF, McGuire V. The possible role of lipid peroxidation in breast cancer risk. Free Radic Biol Med. 1991;10:185-90.

Kumaraguruparan R, Subapriya R, Viswanathan P, Nagini S. Tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. Clin Chim Acta. 2002;325:165-70.

Portakal O, Ozkaya O, Erden Inal M, Bozan B, Kosan M, Sayek I. Coenzyme Q10 concentrations and antioxidant status in tissues of breast cancer patients. Clin Biochem. 2000;33:279-84.

Hristozov D, Gadjeva V, Vlaykova T, Dimitrov G. Evaluation of oxidative stress in patients with cancer. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2001;109(4):331-6.

Goodman L, Gilman A, Brunton L. Goodman and Gilman's manual of pharmacology and therapeutics. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical;2011.

Katzung BG, Masters SB, Trevor AJ, editors. Basic & clinical pharmacology. 12th ed. New York; New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill education;2012.

WHO. Breast cancer: prevention and control. 2015. Available at: breastcancer/en/index1.html#cited:10.08.16.