Published: 2020-02-25

Drug utilization study in schizophrenia patients in outpatient department of psychiatry: an observational prospective study

Nitin Sukadev Hivale, Madhuri D. Kulkarni, Siddharth S. Athawale


Background: A mental disorder or psychiatry disorder is a behavioural or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Schizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Aim of the study is to study drug utilization pattern in schizophrenia patients in outpatient department of psychiatry.

Methods: A prospective and observational study was conducted in psychiatry outpatient department between May 2018 to October 2018 at Government Medical College and Hospital Aurangabad. Approval from ethics committee was taken. Data collected was of age, sex, final diagnosis, drugs prescribed to patients from case report form. The data obtained was then analyzed in Microsoft excel.

Results: Total prescriptions of 129 patients were analyzed. Out of 129 patients 99 (76.74%) were male, while 30 (23.26%) were female. The mean age of the patients admitted in Psychiatry OPD was 36.71±11.76 years. Number of drugs prescribed per patient being 3.40±1.12 (mean±SD). The most common drugs used were olanzapine (66.6%), trihexyphenidyl (51.9%), lorazepam (44.9%), risperidone (39.5%), trifluoperazine (27.9%).

Conclusions: Our study shows that atypical antipsychotics were the most common drugs prescribed in patients. Olanzapine was the most common medication used followed by risperidone. Our prospective study is carried out to get a more comprehensive data so that we can improve the drug utilization in our hospital.


Drugs utilization study, Schizophrenia, Antipsychotics, Olanzapine

Full Text:



World Health Organization International Working Group for Drug Statistics Methodology. Introduction to Drug Utilization Research. Available at: 2003;1–48. Accessed on 20 December 2019.

NIMH. Prevalence of Any Mental Illness (AMI). 2016;1–8. Available at: health/statistics/mental-illness.shtml#part_154785. Accessed on 20 December 2019.

Kuipers E, Kendall T, Antoniou J. Schizophrenia, the NICE Guidelines on 11 core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in adults in primary and secondary care. The British Psychological Society & the Royal College of Psychiatrists; 2010.

Jablensky A. Epidemiology of schizophrenia: the global burden of disease and disability. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000;250(6):274-85.

Paul PK, Konwar M, Das S. To study the prescribing pattern of antipsychotic drugs in a tertiary care hospital of Assam. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;6(4):435-7.

Shanafelt TD, Noseworthy JH. Executive Leadership and Physician Well-being: Nine Organizational Strategies to Promote Engagement and Reduce Burnout. Mayo Clin Proc. 2017;92(1):129-46.

Rode SB, Ajagallay RK, Salankar HV Sinha U. A study on drug prescribing pattern in psychiatry out-patient department from a tertiary care teaching hospital. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2014;3(3):517-22.

Thakkar KB, Jain MM, Billa G, Joshi A, Khobragade AA. A drug utilization study of psychotropic drugs prescribed in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(12):2759-64.

Dutta S, Beg MA, Kaul V, Dutta S, Dhasmana DC. Psychotropic drug utilization study in psychiatric opd of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Dehradun, Uttarakhand. J Adv Res Biol Sci. 2013;5(4):386-91.

Lahon K, Shetty H, Paramel A, Sharma G. A retrospective drug utilization study of antidepressants in the psychiatric unit of a tertiary care hospital. J Clin Diagn Res. 2011;5(5):1069-75.

Rittmannsberger H, Meise U, Schauflinger K, Horvath E, Donat H, Hinterhuber H. Polypharmacy in psychiatric treatment. Patterns of psychotropic drug use in Austrian psychiatric clinics. Eur Psychiatry. 1999;14(1):33-40.

Lahon K, Shetty HM, Paramel A, Sharma G. Pharmacoepidemiological study of antipsychotics in the psychiatry unit of a tertiary care hospital: a retrospective descriptive analysis. Int J Ntr Pharmacol Neurol Dis. 2012;2:135-41.

Ghosh S, Bhattacharya S, Dalai CK. Antipsychotic Prescribing Pattern In A Tertiary Care Hospital In Eastern India. J Drug Delivery Therapeu. 2013;3(4):38-42.

Berkshire health care NHS foundation trust Antipsychotic guidelines. Treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis. 2011: 1-67.

Dutta SB, Dhasmana DC, Bhardwaj R. Psychotropic drug utilization pattern among schizophrenics. Ind J Psychiatry. 2004;46(4):381-2.

Banerjee I, Roy B, Sathian B, Banerjee I, Chakraborty PK, Saha A. Socio demographic profile and utilization pattern of antipsychotic drugs among schizophrenic inpatients: a cross sectional study from western region of Nepal. BMC Psychiatry. 2013;13:96.

Siddiqui RA, Shende TR, Mahajan HM, Borkar A. Antipsychotic medication prescribing trends in a tertiary care hospital. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2016;5:1417-20.

Grover S, Kumar V, Avasthi A, Kulhara P. An audit of first prescription of new patients attending a psychiatry walk-in-clinic in north India. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012;44(3):319-325.

Ashton H. Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. When and what to use. Drugs. 1994;48(1):25-40.

Potter WZ, Hollester LE. Antidepression agents. In: Katzung BG, editor. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 10th Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 2007: 475-88.