Pharmacological investigation of Thespesea populnea bark extract for analgesic activity
Keywords:Pain, Analgesic, Thespesea populnea, bark extract
Background: Pain is an unpleasant and distressing common problem with profound impact on individuals and society. Existing treatment modalities used for pain management are either less effective or exhibits several side effects. The aim of current study is to investigate the analgesic activity of stem bark extract of Thespesea populnea for pain management.
Methods: Thirty Swiss albino were divided into five groups including control, standard and three tests groups (different doses of Thespesea populnea bark extract). Groups were investigated for analgesic activity using hot plate induced paw withdrawal, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced paw licking models.
Results: Findings of hot plate model revealed that, percent increase in reflex latency of paw licking response in mice for test drug (10 mg/kg), attained peak effect of 136% at 180 minutes, whereas for standard pentazocine peak effect of 125% was attained at 180 minutes. In acetic acid model, the maximum percent inhibition in number of writhings for the test drug (30 mg/kg) was 68% and for standard diclofenac, it was 80%. In formalin model, percent inhibition in licking response in early and late phases for test drug (30 mg/kg) were 81% and 91% and for standard diclofenac it was 56% and 94% respectively. It was thus depicted that analgesic activity of test drug was significantly more than the standard in early phase and equivalent to standard in late phase.
Conclusions: It was concluded that Thespesea populnea bark extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg showed potential peripheral and central analgesic activity.
Loeser JD, Treede RD. The kyoto protocol of IASP basic pain terminology. Pain. 2008;137(3):473-7.
Merskey HM. Pain terms. Pain. 1986;3:S215-21.
Raffaeli W, Arnaudo E. Pain as a disease: an overview. J Pain Res. 2017;10:2003-8.
Byers M, Bonica JJ. Peripheral neural mechanisms of nociceptor plasticity. In: Loeser JD, Butler SH, Chapman CR, Turk DC, eds. Bonica's Management of Pain. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001:26-72.
Schaible HG. Peripheral and central mechanisms of pain generation. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2007;177:3-28.
Truini A, Cruccu G. Pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Neurol Sci. 2006;27 (Suppl 2):S179-82.
Kumar SP, Saha S. Mechanism-based Classification of Pain for Physical Therapy Management in Palliative care: A Clinical Commentary. Indian J Palliat Care. 2011;17(1):80-6.
Devor M. Pain mechanisms. Neuroscientist. 1996;2:233-44.
Smart K, Doody C. Mechanism-based clinical reasoning of pain by experienced musculoskeletal physiotherapists. Physiotherapy. 2006;92:171-8.
Ripamonti CI. Pain management. Ann Oncol. 2012;23 (Suppl 10):294-301.
Chou R, Gordon DB, de Leon-Casasola OA. Management of postoperative pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American pain society, the American society of regional anesthesia and pain medicine, and the American society of anesthesiologists' committee on regional anesthesia, executive committee, and administrative council. J Pain. 2016;17(2):131-57.
Nalamachu S. An overview of pain management: the clinical efficacy and value of treatment. Am J Manag Care. 2013;19(Suppl 14):s261-6.
Thomas MA. Pain management - the challenge. Ochsner J. 2003;5(2):15-21.
Varrassi G, Müller-Schwefe G, Pergolizzi J, Orónska A, Morlion B, Mavrocordatos P, et al. Pharmacological treatment of chronic pain - the need for CHANGE. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26:1231-45.
Roelofs PD, Deyo RA, Koes BW, Scholten RJ, van Tulder MW. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain: an updated Cochrane review. Spine. 2008;33:1766-74.
Kiritikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. In: Blaster E, Caius JF, Bhaskar KS, eds. New Delhi: Periodical Experts Book Agency; 1991.
Thespesia populnea. Available at: http://www.hibiscus.org/species/tpopulnea.php. Accessed on 20 November 2020.
Thespesia populnea. Available at:https://www.doc-developpement-durable.org/file/Arbres-Bois-de-Rapport-Reforestation/FICHES_ARBRES/Arbres-non-classes/Thespesia-milo.pdf. Accessed on 20 November 2020.
Corner EJH. Wayside Trees of Malaya. 4th ed. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Nature Society; 1997.
Nagappa AN, Cheriyan B. Wound healing activity of the aqueous extract of Thespesia populnea fruit. Fitoterapia. 2001;72(5):503-6.
Krishnamoorthy P, Vaithinathan S. Effect of the extract of Thespesia populnea leaves on mice testis. J Environ Biol. 2003;24(3):327-30.
Yuvaraj P, Subramoniam A. Hepatoprotective property of Thespesia populnea against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;20(2):169-77.
Belhekar SN, Chaudhari PD, Saryawanshi JS, Mali KK, Pandhare RB. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Thespesia populnea fruit pulp extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2013;75(2):217-21.
Rangani J, Kumari A, Patel M, Brahmbhatt H, Parida AK. Phytochemical profiling, polyphenol composition, and antioxidant activity of the leaf extract from the medicinal halophyte Thespesia populnea reveal a potential source of bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. J Food Biochem. 2019;43(2):e12731.
Ilavarasan R, Vasudevan M, Anbazhagan S, Venkataraman S. Antioxidant activity of Thespesia populnea bark extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;87(2-3):227-30.
iswanatha GL, Hanumanthappa S, Krishnadas N, Rangappa S. Antidiarrheal effect of fractions from stem bark of Thespesia populnea in rodents: Possible antimotility and antisecretory mechanisms. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4(6):451-6.
Vasudevan M, Parle M. Pharmacological actions of Thespesia populnea relevant to Alzheimer's disease. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):677-87.
Menéndez L, Lastra A, Hidalgo A, Baamonde A. Unilateral hot plate test: a simple and sensitive method for detecting central and peripheral hyperalgesia in mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2002;113(1):91-7.
Gawade SP. Acetic acid induced painful endogenous infliction in writhing test on mice. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2012;3(4):348.
Hunskaar S, Hole K. The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain. Pain. 1987;30(1):103-14.