Suspected immune mediated response to COVID-19 vaccine: two individual case reports
Keywords:COVID 19 vaccine, Adverse event, Pancreatitis, Typhilitis, AEFI
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly around the world. Researchers have been working round the clock to develop effective vaccines, which people started receiving in December 2020. Therefore, careful follow-up and surveillance studies for continued vaccine safety monitoring will be needed to ascertain the potential risks of such adverse events or disease. Here, we present two individual cases of pancreatitis and typhilitis following COVID 19 vaccination. In the first case of a 38 years old male patient developed pancreatitis after 4 days of COVID 19 vaccination and in second case, of a 60 years old female patient developing typhilitis after just one day after vaccination. All possible causes of this occurrence were ruled out. Two main factors suggest a possible link to the vaccine, the chronology of the events and the incongruent immune response to the vaccine component. It is not possible to establish a direct causal relation between vaccination and adverse event following immunization; however, this report can be used to alert practitioners to this possibility of adverse event following immunization after COVID-19 vaccine.
WHO director-general’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19. Abailable at: https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-re. Accessed on 7 Septe-mber 2020.
Haynes BF, Corey L, Fernandes P, Gilbert PB, Hotez PJ, Rao S, et al. Prospects for a safe COVID-19 vaccine. Sci Transl Med. 2020;12(568):445-9.
Sarles H, Sarles JC, Muratore R. Chronic inflammatory sclerosis of the pancreas-An autonomous pancreatic disease?. Am J Dig Dis. 1961;6:688-98.
Sahel J, Barthet M, Gasmi M. Autoimmune pancreatitis: increasing evidence for a clinical entity with various patterns. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepato.l 2004;16:1265-8.
Shlomovitz E, Davies W, Cairns E, Brintnell WC, Goldszmidt M, Dresser GK. Severe necrotizing pancreatitis following combined hepatitis A and B vaccination. CMAJ. 2007;176(3):339-42.
Janigan DT, Nevalainen TJ, MacAulay MA. Foreign serum-induced pancreatitis in mice. I. A new model of acute pancreatitis. Lab Invest. 1975;33:591-607.
Urbach DR, Rotstein OD, Typhlitis. Canadian journal of surgery. J Canad de Chirurgie. 1999; 42(6):415-9.
Kostoff RN, Kanduc D, Porter AL, Shoenfeld Y, Calina D, Briggs MB, et al. Vaccine- and natural infection-induced mechanisms that could modulate vaccine safety. Toxicol. Rep. 2020;7:1448-58.