Published: 2022-08-24

Determination of the drug utilization patterns of antimicrobial agents used in the department of ear, nose and throat at a tertiary care teaching hospital

Satyashil A. Ingle, Sujeet A. Divhare, Rajesh S. Hiray, Sujata Shingare


Background: Pharmacoepidemiology deals with the epidemiological aspects of clinical use of and effects of drugs over a large population with intentions to have a rationalised prescription practices while using various drugs preferably anti-microbial agents. Objective of the research was to study the prescribing patterns of drugs in ear, nose and throat (ENT) department and to evaluate prescriptions according to World Health Organization (WHO) drug use indicators.

Methods: A cross sectional, observational study was conducted in the department of ENT. Data was collected from the prescriptions of patients in outpatient (OPD) and inpatient department (IPD) both.

Results: Total number of 250 prescriptions were analysed in which 1038 drugs were prescribed, with average number of drugs prescribed per prescription were 3.6 and 4.6 drugs among OPD and IPD group respectively. Anti-histaminic class of drugs were most prescribed drugs in OPD while in IPD, all anti-microbial agents were most prescribed class of drugs. There was a statistically significant difference between drugs prescribed by generic and branded names. When compared statistically, it was found that 1%, 59% and 40% prescribed drugs in OPD were from desirable, essential and vital class respectively. While 3%, 62% and 36% of prescribed drugs in IPD were from desirable, essential and vital class respectively.

Conclusions: It is vital to aware prescribers about the importance of rationalised prescribing and avoid polypharmacy. A need for the development of prescribing guidelines and educational initiatives to encourage the rational and appropriate use of drugs, in order to give the inputs to the prescribing doctors.


Drug utilization study, Generic, Branded, WHO drug indicators, Evidence based treatment

Full Text:



World Health Organization (WHO) and International Network for Rational Use of Drugs. How to Investigate Drug Use in Health Facilities: Selected Drug Use indicators. 1993. Available at: Accessed on 23 June 2022.

World Health Organization. Introduction to Drug Utilization Research. 2003. Available at: Accessed on 23 June 2022.

Dineshkumar B, Raghuram TC, Radhaiah G, Krishnaswamy K. Profile of drug use in urban and rural India. Pharmacoeconomics. 1995;7(4):332-46.

Saepudin S. Drug utilization 90% (DU 90%) profile of antibiotic for treatment of hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection at two hospitals in Yogyalarta. Journal Llmiah Farmasi. 2008;5:42-8.

Kishore Kumar Y, Cheekavolu C, Obulesu G. Drug utilization pattern in ENT OPD of government tertiary care teaching hospital in Raigarh. Int J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;4:1042-5.

Rehan HS. Pattern of drug utilization in acute tonsillitis in a teaching hospital in Nepal. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;55(3):176.

Daniel M, Bharathi DR, Nataraj GR, Jinil AL. Drug utilization trends in ENT outpatients. IJSHR. 2018;3(4):166-71.

Begum MM, Uddin MS, Rahman MS, Nure MA, Saha RR, Begum T, Begum R, Islam A, Sultana M, Karim R. Analysis of prescription pattern of antibiotic drugs on patients suffering from ENT infection within Dhaka Metropolis, Bangladesh. Int J Basic Clinic Pharmacol. 2017;6(2):257-64.

Isaac S, Jayakumari S, Lekshmi RS. A Prospective study on the Drug prescribing pattern of Antibiotics in the Ears, Nose and Throat department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. Res J Pharm Technol. 2019;12(12):6001-6.

Joel JJ, Bhat VS, Rose AE. Study on drug utilization pattern of antibiotics in Respiratory Tract Infections. Res J Pharm Technol. 2019;12(3):1189-92.

Abubakar K, Abdulkadir R, Abubakar MR, Ugwah-Oguejiofor JC, Abubakar SB. Pattern of drug utilization in the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media in a tertiary health institution in Kaduna, Nigeria. J Health Science. 2014;4(1):7-10.

Padda IS, Nagalli S. Cefotaxime. StatPearls. 2020.

Sridevi SA, Janagan T, Rathnasamy P, Rajarajeswari R. Drug utilization study in the otorhinolaryngology department in a tertiary care hospital. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2013;2(3):306-10.

Silfwerbrand E, Verma S, Sjökvist C, Stålsby Lundborg C, Sharma M. Diagnose-Specific Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns at Otorhinolaryngology Inpatient Departments of Two Private Sector Healthcare Facilities in Central India: A Five-Year Observational Study. Int J Env Res Public Health. 2019;16(21):4074.